发布时间：2019-09-19 11:17 来源:取名网 作者：www.ciduw.com 公众号:瓷都取名网
China's Ancient Clothing
China's traditional clothing is characterized as magnificent, as shown in ceremonies and court, and grand and exerts immense influence on the neighboring countries. An outstanding characteristic of traditional Chinese clothing is not only an external expression of elegance，but also an internal symbolism. Each and every piece of traditional clothing communicates a sense of vitality of its own intrinsically. Such a perfect combination of external form with internal symbolism of clothing is clearly exemplified in the pair of fighting pheasant feathers used in head wear originating in the battle wear of the Warring States period（475一221 BC）。Two feathers of a ho bird（a type pheasant good at fighting）were inserted into the helmet wom by warriors of this period to symbolize a bold and warlike spirit.
According to archaeological findings，18 000-year-old artifacts such as bone sewing needles and stone beads and shells with holes bored in them attest to the existence of ornamentation and of sewing early in ancient Chinese civilization. Variety in clothing was roughly established by the era of the Yellaw Emperor and the Emperors Yao and Shun（about 4 500 years ago）。Remains of woven silk and hemp articles and ancient ceramic figures further demonstrate the sophistication and refinement of clothing in the Shang Dynasty（ 16th to I 1 th century BC ）。
The three main types of traditional Chinese clothing are the pien-fu，the ch'ang-p'ao，and the shen-i. The plan-fu is an ancient two-piece ceremonial costume of a tunic-like top extending to the knees and a skirt or trousers extending to the ankles. The ch'ang-p'ao is a one-piece garment extending from the shoulders all the way to the heels. The shen-i is a cross between the pies and the ch'angp'ao;on the one hand，it consists of a tunic and a skirt or trousers like the pierfu， on the other hand，the tunic and the skirt are sewed together and essentially one piece like the ch'ang-p'ao. Consequently, the shen-i was the most widely worn of the three types. Typical of these three types of clothing were wide and voluminous sleeves and a very loose fit. Tunic and trousers or tunic and skirt，utilized a very small number of stitches for the amount of cloth used. So because of their relatively plain design and structure，embroidered edgings，decorated bands，draped cloth or silks，patterns on the shoulders，and sashes were often added as ornaments. Variety in designs came to be one of the unique features of traditional Chinese dress.
Darker colors were favored over lighter ones in traditional Chinese clothing，so the main color of ceremonial clothing tended to be dark while bright，elaborate tapestry designs actented. Lighter colored clothing was worn more frequently by the common people for everyday life and around the house use. The Chinese associate certain colors with specific seasons:green represents spring，red symbolizes summer, white represents autumn，and black symbolizes winter. The Chinese are said to have a fully developed system of matching，coordinating，and contrasting colors in apparel.
China's Modern Clothing
After the 1911 Revolution，the garments changed greatly，and the dresses and the official cap were eliminated. Particularly，hair plaits were cut off, but chi-pao（one-piece mandarin robe）still exist. The Blue Short Gown of schoolgirls was the main style，and it gradually became popular.
The government specified the system of formal dresses of men and women in the first year of the Republic of China. Men had dress suits and routine suits. Dress suits included day suit and evening suit，which were all made of black cloth，trousers and cravats. Routine suits included Western style and Chinese style（e. g. long gown and mandarin jacket）。The formal dress of women had collars and was long to the knees with buttons down the front. Skirts were decorated with cartouches in the front and back，both sides were sewn with pleats，and both ends had patterns of knots.
Along with the emergence of cinema，film stars became eminent figures gradually. Shanghai City became the base camp of women's wear in China. The garments of Guangdong Province and Hong Kong became one of the branches of Shanghai City garments
Changes of Men's and Women's Costume
Men wore western-style clothes and Sun Yat-sen's uniform（Chinese tunic suit ） . These two styles of clothes were foreign styles，and most officials and intel lectuals more usually wore them. White garments were worn in the summer, but black or dark garments were worn in other seasons. The style with a mandarin jacket over a long gown was still one of the common dressing styles. The student's clothing with erect collar .three pockets and seven buttons were mainly the uniform and women included a jacket and trousers or covered with a ramie skirt（long or short small skirt fastened on body ）。
Women's costume changed greatly during the period，some kept the Qing Dynasty（1644一1912）style of trousers and clothes with curving front，some imitated western-style with a jacket and a skirt，most schoolgirls wore black silk skirts and short jackets that had a round lower hem and short sleeves to elbow. The common garments of social women were mainly Chi-pao.
The overall tendency of new garments was divided into two types:one type was the long Chi-paos made of solid-color cloth or printed materials;characteristi-tally, laces or patterns were added to the edges，or the small waistcoat and silk scarves were over the jacket. As to the other dressing type，the upper garment and lower skirt were separated.
In the 1920s，people began to wear Chi-pao whose style was mostly the same as that of the Qizhuang garments（garments of banner men）existing at the end of the QingDynasty. Later，the cuff was reduced gradually，and embroidered border was not as broad as the previous one. By the end of the 1920s，dressing style was affected by that of Europe and America，and the pattern of chipao was changed significantly. By the early 19306，Chi-pao had been very popular. The main changes of garments in that time were the modifications of collar, sleeve and length，etc. The garments with high collar were popular at first，and the higher the collar, the more popular. Gradual1y，garments with low collars began to be popular，and the lower the collar，the more modern. Finally，people wore collarless and sleeveless Chi-pao.